The four stage frame empowers students to comprehend text by framing the author's message through examining the context, tracing his or her specific purpose and detecting their plan behind their writing, deciphering the intention that instigated the author to write the text, and finally reconstructing the motive looming behind it all. All of this depth is the spring board to extend the act of understanding beyond the text, connecting to themselves, and their quest for larger meaning (Piercy and Piercy, 2011, p.84).


WHY USE THE FOUR STAGE DISCIPLINARY LITERACY CONTENT FRAMES?We can no longer expect the literacy skills needed to read in math, science, social studies, or literature to be only taught in English or English Language Arts. We have to recognize how different those skills are. “Text in these content areas have different structures, language conventions, vocabularies, and criteria for comprehension.” (Piercy, 2011, p. 64) No longer can teachers in other content area tell us that they are not responsible for literacy instruction. Many teachers in these areas will struggle if they are not willing to take responsibility for literacy instruction in their content area. In content reading the goal is to get students to read primary and secondary sources like an expert would read those materials. We can never assume students at any grade level or even in College would have that skill. When students read a primary source document such as a letter written by Thomas Edison, we would want that learner to read with the skills of a historian. The frames promote this opportunity for students to read like an expert in your discipline: a historian, a literary critic, a mathematician, or a scientist.
The frame allows for any person to filter the words and sentences through questioning from the perspective of the “field of study.” The frame enables our students to filter their reading for specific data using literary actions, including synthesizing and creating, to cognitively transform learning.
To filter a text from multiple perspectives reinforces the strength and flexibility of Disciplinary Literacy. The frames are interchangeable meaning they can be used within any discipline; looking from a different perspective allows students to be literate in any discipline. You could read the same text and answer multiple frameS (historian and scientist/ literacry critic and mathematician).

WHAT ARE THE FOUR STAGES?
Stage A- Context
  • the context of the text is the framework for the text
Stage B- Text
  • the text from the perspective of the “field of study”
Stage C- Impersonal Subtext
  • reading between the lines for deeper comprehension
Stage D- Personal Subtext
  • uncovering meanings which the author didnt intend to reveal


TEMPLATES and RESOURCES















EXAMPLES
This is an example using "Free Minds and Hearts at Work" by Jackie Robinson (1952) This allows the students to read this piece of text from the perspective of a historian.


This Math example frames a linear programming word problem.



This Math example frames direct variation and applies it to the real world. The text is taken from the Prentice Hall Algebra I Foundations book p.321 and 323. It can be easily adapted to fit any math text from textbooks. It forces the students to read the math text and understand how to solve direct variation problems.



This Math example frames quadratics and applies it to the real world. The text is taken from the Prentice Hall Algebra I Foundations book beginning p.569. It can be easily adapted to fit any math text from textbooks. It forces the students to read the math text and understand how to solve problems with quadratics.



BLANK TEMPLATES for Stages A & B of 4 Stage Text Investigation




VIDEO EXAMPLES

Reading Like A Historian: Focus Questions by Teaching Channel (2 min)